Search
Contact Us
London Coins

June Auction Catalogue

Auction & Viewing
Where & When
. Auction Highlights  


Browse By Category
Select Category


General Search
Enter Search Term


Lot Search
Enter Lot Number


Bidding
Bidding Form (HTML)
Bidding Form (DOC)
Telephone
01474 871464
Fax
01474 872173
Email
bids@londoncoins.co.uk
Auction Viewing
Viewing Form (HTML)
Viewing Form (DOC)
Catalogue
London Coins Auction 177
View This Catalogue
as a flipbook
Download This Catalogue (Plain Text HTML)
Download This catalogue (PDF)
Download This Catalogue (Excel)


lot

description

estimate

836 A collection of coins on Stamp Covers (26) in three large albums base metal coins the vast majority crown sized, along with four Westminster single cover albums 3 with silver crowns the fourth contains a 2015 8 coin Mint Set and a coin album with a collection of circulated British 20th century coins and fantasy imitation crowns and several pouch style bags of 20th century circulated British coins including Fifty Pences £120 - £220
837 A small chest of drawers with 5 drawers, dark wood, in good usable second-hand condition £0 - £20
838 A Sovereign holder in 9 carat gold (c.1911) by S.Blanckensee & Son Ltd. weighing 16.35 grammes in excellent condition £400 - £500 London Coins : A Sovereign holder in 9 carat gold (c.1911) by S.Blanckensee & Son Ltd. weighing 16.35 grammes in excellent condition Click to Enlarge
839 A Sovereign holder in sterling silver (c.1904-1095) on a sterling silver chain, total weight 37.42 grammes, with a Sovereign 1911 light weight at 3.6 grammes gold content unknown £25 - £75
840 Accessories - Aluminium cases (2) each containing 5 trays most slots include capsule-style square holders, in excellent used condition, A carrying box containing 8 Lindner Trays, the carry handle detached, all pieces are present, appears to be a straightforward repair, otherwise in good condition, the trays excellent, A Westminster box containing a tray for 12 coins, and an empty promoters-style case, in good second-hand condition £0 - £70
841 Accessories (3) A wooden glass-topped display case 605mm x 405mm x 55mm, an Abafil carrying case 385mm x 245mm x 100mm, no trays, (will hold 10 standard size trays), an Abafil carrying case 355mm x 240mm x 195mm no trays, (will hold 20 standard size trays all in very good second-hand condition £25 - £75
842 Accessories a large group includes Lindner trays (14), Abafil-style trays (12), Westminster boxes (5), three coin album-style folders, a selection of Royal Mint and other promoters boxes and a group of capsules including Maundy 4-coin capsules, and more, all in good used condition (total weight around 21 Kilos) £0 - £50 London Coins : Accessories a large group includes Lindner trays (14), Abafil-style trays (12), Westminster boxes (5), three coin album-style folders, a selection of Royal Mint and other promoters boxes and a group of capsules including Maundy 4-coin capsules, and more, all in good used condition (total weight around 21 Kilos) Click to Enlarge
843 Accessories includes Coin Albums (3), a banknote album and a large quantity of coin album page along with an Abafil-style carrying case with 2 trays included, in fair second-hand condition (around 11.5 Kilos) £0 - £20
844 Australia Half Sovereign 1859 Sydney Branch Mint Marsh 384 VG in a 9 carat gold ring, total weight 10.54 grammes £220 - £320
845 Books (19) a useful selection, comprising 'English Copper, Tin and Bronze Coins in the British Museum' by C.W.Peck (Second Edition 1970), 'Montagu's Copper Coins of England' 1893, 'The British Bronze Penny 1860-1970' by Michael Gouby, with set of corrections used at the printing stage. Coincraft's Standard Catalogue of English and UK coins 1066-date (1997 edition), Seaby Standard Catalogue 1971, The English Silver Coinage from 1749 by H.A.Seaby and P.A.Rayner Fourth Edition (1974), 'The Royal Maundy' by Dr. B. Robinson, (1977), 'British Copper' by Henry Garside (1920), 'The Early British Bronze Bun Penny 1860 to 1865 and Their Varieties' by John Jerrams (2 copies) accompanied by four smaller different trial copies, 'British Copper Coins and Their Values by Seaby (1967), 'Buying and Selling Coins' by Michael Freeman (1983), 'Collecting Coins' by Frank Purvey (1966), 'Coins of the World' by Richard Doty (1976), 'A Guide Book of English Coins' by K.E.Bressett (Second Edition 1962-1963), and 'How To Arrange and Write-Up A Stamp Collection' by Stanley Gibbons, all in good second-hand condition £70 - £100
846 Books (21) comprising Spink Standard Catalogue 2019 Pre-Decimal and Decimal issues (new), Spink Standard Catalogue 2008, Seaby Standard Catalogue 1969, Coin Yearbooks (2) 1999 and 2001 Editions, Coins Market Values (2) 2000 and 2002 editions, Collectors' Coins (2) 2006 and 2008 editions, USA Red Book 2007 by R.S.Yeoman 60th Edition, Krause World Paper Money 1961-1997 (1997 Edition), English Paper Money (8th Edition) by Vincent Duggleby/Pam West, The Banknote Yearbook (2) Fourth Edition 2005 and Fifth Editions by Token Publishing, Collectors' Banknotes 2008, 20th Century Scottish Banknotes by James Douglas 1975, The Collector's Handbook 12th Edition by James L. Halperin and Gregory J. Rohan, 2019, Money Trend Magazine April 2005 (Austria), Treasure Trinkets - Jewellery in London from Pre-Roman Times to the 1930s by Tessa Murdoch, Australian Coins and Banknotes 18th Edition by Greg McDonald, and Check You Change No.4 1702-1837, all in good second-hand condition £10 - £20
847 Books (25) The Bronze Coinage of Great Britain by Michael Freeman, 1970 Edition, English Silver Coinage by H.A.Seaby and P.A.Rayner, Fourth Edition (1974), The Standard Catalogue of English Milled Coinage 1672-1972 by Geoffrey M.Cope and P. Alan Rayner, with accompanying price list, Seaby Coins of England Standard Catalogue 1978, Cleaning and Preservation of Coins and Medals by Durst, Coin Year Book 1982, What's It Worth 1976 Edition by Richard Lobel, Collectors Coins 2001 Coins Market Values 1999 Edition, Collect British Banknotes by Stanley Gibbons, An Advanced Guide to Coin Collecting by Howard Linecar, Roman Coins by Richard Reece, Reading and Dating Roman Imperial Coins by Zander H.Klawans, English Paper Money 6th Edition by Vincent Duggleby, The Pictorial History of the Royal Maundy by Peter A.Wright, The Royal Mint - An Illustrated History by G.P.Dyer, The Coins of Roman Britain by Andrew Burnett, Manchester Museum Common Coins 1966 by Professor F.C.Thompson, Pocket Money Guide 1968 (2), Collecting English Coins 1837-1971 by David Nash, The Check Your Change Companion, Check Your Victorian Change and Check Your 18th Century Change, all by Rotographic Ltd., The Development of the English Coinage, Elizabeth I to Elizabeth II by Midland Bank/Spink, Money in Britain by C.R.Josset 1971, all in good second-hand condition £0 - £20
848 Cap Badges (10) Princess Victoria's 89th Foot, Egypt, London Irish Regiment, London Irish Regiment, Royal Fusiliers Regiment, Liverpool Scottish Regiment, Second Nottingham Regiment of Foot, London Scottish Regiment (S.Africa 1900-02), Welsh 1st Battalion of 24th Foot Lieutenants helmet plate, Welsh 1st Battalion of 94th Foot, Royal Marines, an Officers helmet plate GANG FORWARD I AM READY, and an army buckle, in mixed grades £100 - £150
849 Casino Token - Imperial Palace 200 Dollars 1995 redeemable cash value, One Troy Pound of Silver, in .999 silver with gold coloured highlighting, with gold sun, Proof FDC in the box of issue £200 - £350
850 Casino Tokens - Las Vegas (54) Ten Dollars bimetallic with .999 silver centres each 43mm diameter and weighing 36.5 to 37.2 grammes, these tokens could only be obtained by winning them from certain slot machines and certain winning combinations from the Las Vegas casinos. Many of the casinos featured in this collection are from venues that either no longer exist, or have been taken over by larger companies or consortiums. This collection was assembled when many of the venues were smaller establishments rather than the large companies of today. Venues comprise: Las Vegas International Airport, Hacienda, Luxor, Excalibur, Tropicana, Hotel San Remo, MGM Grand, New York New York (Grand Opening), Monte Carlo Resort, Boardwalk Casino, Aladdin Casino, Bally's, Barbary Coast, Maxim, Rio Suite Hotel, Caesar's Palace, Flamingo, O'Shea's, Imperial Palace, Harrah's, The Mirage, Treasure Island, Desert Inn, Stardust, Westward Ho, Slots-a-Fun, Circus Circus, Riviera, Sahara, Las Vegas Hilton, Stratosphere, Fiesta, The Orleans, Hard Rock Hotel, Four Queens, Fitzgerald's, El Cortez, Sam Boyd's, Main Street Station, Horseshoe, Fremont, Jackin Gaughan's Plaza, Golden Gate, Golden Nugget, Sam's Town, Whiskey Pete's, Buffalo Bill's, Silver Legacy, Boulder Station, Gold Strike Inn, Mahoney's Silver Nugget, Opera House Casino, Boomtown, John Ascuaga's Nugget. the majority are undated and are stated by the vendor to be 1980s issues, but those with dates are in the 1995 to 1999 range. All Lustrous UNC £1,000 - £1,500
851 Coin Cabinet professionally made by Peter Nichols of St. Leonards, lockable with key, 30 trays, Coronet size, almost all felts present, 445mm x 445mm x 310mm, in excellent second-hand condition £200 - £350 London Coins : Coin Cabinet professionally made by Peter Nichols of St. Leonards, lockable with key, 30 trays, Coronet size, almost all felts present, 445mm x 445mm x 310mm, in excellent second-hand condition Click to Enlarge London Coins : Coin Cabinet professionally made by Peter Nichols of St. Leonards, lockable with key, 30 trays, Coronet size, almost all felts present, 445mm x 445mm x 310mm, in excellent second-hand condition Click to Enlarge
852 Coin Cabinets (3) all professionally made by Peter Nichols of St. Leonards, the first 210mm x 170mm x 110mm, lockable with key, 8 trays, with all felts, the other two cabinets 210mm x 165mm x 57mm, both lockable with the respective keys, these with 4 'lift-out' trays each, almost all felts present, in excellent second-hand condition, comes with an additional spare tray to fit the smaller cabinets £50 - £100 London Coins : Coin Cabinets (3) all professionally made by Peter Nichols of St. Leonards, the first 210mm x 170mm x 110mm, lockable with key, 8 trays, with all felts, the other two cabinets 210mm x 165mm x 57mm, both lockable with the respective keys, these with 4 'lift-out' trays each, almost all felts present, in excellent second-hand condition, comes with an additional spare tray to fit the smaller cabinets Click to Enlarge London Coins : Coin Cabinets (3) all professionally made by Peter Nichols of St. Leonards, the first 210mm x 170mm x 110mm, lockable with key, 8 trays, with all felts, the other two cabinets 210mm x 165mm x 57mm, both lockable with the respective keys, these with 4 'lift-out' trays each, almost all felts present, in excellent second-hand condition, comes with an additional spare tray to fit the smaller cabinets Click to Enlarge
853 Enamelled Crown 1696 the reverse in 7 colours, good workmanship, Fine, on a pin mount £180 - £220 London Coins : Enamelled Crown 1696 the reverse in 7 colours, good workmanship, Fine, on a pin mount  Click to Enlarge London Coins : Enamelled Crown 1696 the reverse in 7 colours, good workmanship, Fine, on a pin mount  Click to Enlarge
854 Engraved Shilling 1920 the obverse engraved with a church, comparisons with archive pictures show it is modelled on the Chesterfield crooked spire, Bold Good Fine, an interesting and historical piece of local interest £20 - £40 London Coins : Engraved Shilling 1920 the obverse engraved with a church, comparisons with archive pictures show it is modelled on the Chesterfield crooked spire, Bold Good Fine, an interesting and historical piece of local interest Click to Enlarge London Coins : Engraved Shilling 1920 the obverse engraved with a church, comparisons with archive pictures show it is modelled on the Chesterfield crooked spire, Bold Good Fine, an interesting and historical piece of local interest Click to Enlarge
855 Fantasy Strikes and Replicas (26) Five Pounds (2) 2010, 2013, Sovereigns 1913, 1914 (5), 1937, 1957 and 1959, the 1937 marked 9ct on the edge but the design filed and showing a base metal core, all in base metal and weighing between 3.7 grammes and 5 grammes, EF to UNC and South Africa Krugerrand 2012 19.5 grammes , all presumed base metal EF to UNC, Sovereigns 1887 and 1891 these poorly struck imitations 4.47 grammes and 4.55 grammes, Fine to Good Fine, World Crown-sized replicas (12) GB Crowns 1935 (2), 1937, Strait Settlements One Dollar 1904 (2), South Africa Crown 1952, Hong Kong Dollar 1867, Bermuda Crown 1959, Isle of Man Crown 1976, Bahamas Two Dollars 1966, and New Zealand One Dollar 1977 Waitangi Day (2), all appear around NVF to VF and with the appearance of being 'as made' £0 - £25
856 Mint Error - India Quarter Anna 1877 a 'strike through' error, the reverse with an area around 14mm x 9mm obscuring the top centre part of the coin, NVF extremely unusual to find a minting flaw this large on any coin £180 - £220 London Coins : Mint Error - India Quarter Anna 1877 a 'strike through' error, the reverse with an area around 14mm x 9mm obscuring the top centre part of the coin, NVF extremely unusual to find a minting flaw this large on any coin Click to Enlarge London Coins : Mint Error - India Quarter Anna 1877 a 'strike through' error, the reverse with an area around 14mm x 9mm obscuring the top centre part of the coin, NVF extremely unusual to find a minting flaw this large on any coin Click to Enlarge
857 Mint Error - Mis-Strike Crown 1965 with a crescent-shaped minting flaw on the reverse, UNC £20 - £30 London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike Crown 1965 with a crescent-shaped minting flaw on the reverse, UNC Click to Enlarge London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike Crown 1965 with a crescent-shaped minting flaw on the reverse, UNC Click to Enlarge
858 Mint Error - Mis-Strike Decimal One Pound Obverse: Rank-Broadley portrait of the Queen, Reverse: Royal Arms with supporters, date worn (1993) struck on a incorrect 21mm diameter nickel coated steel thin flan, 4.1 grammes, plain edge, legends worn appears NVG but probably around 'as made', a highly unusual error £50 - £75 London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike Decimal One Pound Obverse: Rank-Broadley portrait of the Queen, Reverse: Royal Arms with supporters, date worn (1993) struck on a incorrect 21mm diameter nickel coated steel thin flan, 4.1 grammes, plain edge, legends worn appears NVG but probably around 'as made', a highly unusual error Click to Enlarge London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike Decimal One Pound Obverse: Rank-Broadley portrait of the Queen, Reverse: Royal Arms with supporters, date worn (1993) struck on a incorrect 21mm diameter nickel coated steel thin flan, 4.1 grammes, plain edge, legends worn appears NVG but probably around 'as made', a highly unusual error Click to Enlarge
859 Mint Error - Mis-Strike India Quarter Rupee George V (1912-1936) in an NGC holder 'Reverse Struck Through Fragment' and graded Mint Error VF Details, the fragment covering most of the central part of the reverse design within the wreath in an irregular 12mm x 15mm area, in this area the incuse outline of the King's head from the obverse is clearly visible £550 - £650 London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike India Quarter Rupee George V (1912-1936) in an NGC holder 'Reverse Struck Through Fragment' and graded Mint Error VF Details, the fragment covering most of the central part of the reverse design within the wreath in an irregular 12mm x 15mm area, in this area the incuse outline of the King's head from the obverse is clearly visible Click to Enlarge London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike India Quarter Rupee George V (1912-1936) in an NGC holder 'Reverse Struck Through Fragment' and graded Mint Error VF Details, the fragment covering most of the central part of the reverse design within the wreath in an irregular 12mm x 15mm area, in this area the incuse outline of the King's head from the obverse is clearly visible Click to Enlarge
860 Mint Error - Mis-Strike India Two Rupees 2003 National Integration an off-metal strike in steel rather than cupro-nickel, struck on a round 26mm flan rather than the standard 11-sided flan, 4.97 grammes, (cupro-nickel standard issue is 6.00 grammes) GEF and highly unusual £100 - £120 London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike India Two Rupees 2003 National Integration an off-metal strike in steel rather than cupro-nickel, struck on a round 26mm flan rather than the standard 11-sided flan, 4.97 grammes, (cupro-nickel standard issue is 6.00 grammes) GEF and highly unusual Click to Enlarge London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike India Two Rupees 2003 National Integration an off-metal strike in steel rather than cupro-nickel, struck on a round 26mm flan rather than the standard 11-sided flan, 4.97 grammes, (cupro-nickel standard issue is 6.00 grammes) GEF and highly unusual Click to Enlarge
861 Mint Error - Mis-Strike Indian Princely States - Indore Quarter Anna (1886-1903) Obverse brockage VF with a little corrosion and some dirt in the legends, a highly unusual piece £300 - £350 London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike Indian Princely States - Indore Quarter Anna (1886-1903) Obverse brockage VF with a little corrosion and some dirt in the legends, a highly unusual piece Click to Enlarge London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike Indian Princely States - Indore Quarter Anna (1886-1903) Obverse brockage VF with a little corrosion and some dirt in the legends, a highly unusual piece Click to Enlarge
862 Mint Error - Mis-Strike Indian Princely States - Kutch Five Kori 1922 Y#53 with die axis inverted GVF £150 - £200 London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike Indian Princely States - Kutch Five Kori 1922 Y#53 with die axis inverted GVF Click to Enlarge London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike Indian Princely States - Kutch Five Kori 1922 Y#53 with die axis inverted GVF Click to Enlarge
863 Mint Error - Mis-Strike Indo-Scythian - Western Chatraps Silver Drachma 14-15mm diameter, Obverse Brockage (c.3rd to 4th Century AD) some surface encrustation, overall VF £150 - £200 London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike Indo-Scythian - Western Chatraps Silver Drachma 14-15mm diameter, Obverse Brockage (c.3rd to 4th Century AD) some surface encrustation, overall VF Click to Enlarge London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike Indo-Scythian - Western Chatraps Silver Drachma 14-15mm diameter, Obverse Brockage (c.3rd to 4th Century AD) some surface encrustation, overall VF Click to Enlarge
864 Mint Error - Mis-Strike Portuguese India Escudo 1959 KM#33 the obverse with a spectacular strike through/brockage between 3 and 6 o'clock covering 9mm and spreading this part of the flan, UNC with some golden toning, a highly unusual piece £100 - £120 London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike Portuguese India Escudo 1959 KM#33 the obverse with a spectacular strike through/brockage between 3 and 6 o'clock covering 9mm and spreading this part of the flan, UNC with some golden toning, a highly unusual piece Click to Enlarge London Coins : Mint Error - Mis-Strike Portuguese India Escudo 1959 KM#33 the obverse with a spectacular strike through/brockage between 3 and 6 o'clock covering 9mm and spreading this part of the flan, UNC with some golden toning, a highly unusual piece Click to Enlarge
865 Mint Errors - Mis-Strikes (2) Decimal Fifty Pences (2) 1978 struck on a rotated blank so the 'points' of the coin appear halfway along the straight edges of the flan, also struck slight off-centre A/UNC and lustrous, 1981 struck on a slightly rotated blank the 'points' of the design and flan do not align correctly results in a slightly thicker outer rim EF, both unusual £50 - £100 London Coins : Mint Errors - Mis-Strikes (2) Decimal Fifty Pences (2) 1978 struck on a rotated blank so the 'points' of the coin appear halfway along the straight edges of the flan, also struck slight off-centre A/UNC and lustrous, 1981 struck on a slightly rotated blank the 'points' of the design and flan do not align correctly results in a slightly thicker outer rim EF, both unusual Click to Enlarge London Coins : Mint Errors - Mis-Strikes (2) Decimal Fifty Pences (2) 1978 struck on a rotated blank so the 'points' of the coin appear halfway along the straight edges of the flan, also struck slight off-centre A/UNC and lustrous, 1981 struck on a slightly rotated blank the 'points' of the design and flan do not align correctly results in a slightly thicker outer rim EF, both unusual Click to Enlarge
866 Mint Errors - Mis-Strikes India (2) Quarter Anna 1898 the reverse edge tapered inwards with the rims not struck, 5.78 grammes, Fine and unusual, Quarter Rupee 1943L with die axis rotation of 90 degrees GVF and unusual £240 - £280 London Coins : Mint Errors - Mis-Strikes India (2) Quarter Anna 1898 the reverse edge tapered inwards with the rims not struck, 5.78 grammes, Fine and unusual, Quarter Rupee 1943L with die axis rotation of 90 degrees GVF and unusual Click to Enlarge London Coins : Mint Errors - Mis-Strikes India (2) Quarter Anna 1898 the reverse edge tapered inwards with the rims not struck, 5.78 grammes, Fine and unusual, Quarter Rupee 1943L with die axis rotation of 90 degrees GVF and unusual Click to Enlarge
867 Mint Errors - Mis-Strikes India (4) Five Rupees 2003 K.Kamaraj an off-centre strike with around 3mm blank flan covering almost half the coin, in a crescent shape EF, 1975 Ten Paisa 1988 struck around 15% off-centre with around 4mm extra flan showing at the lower part of the reverse, in this area around half of an additional date is visible A/UNC, 50 Paise (2) 1998 and 2002 both struck off-centre each with an area of blank flan of around 4mm covering around half the coin in a crescent shape both UNC or near so and lustrous £180 - £220
868 Pocket Watch Half Hunter in a 9 carat gold case, 48.5mm diameter, London import mark 1928 with sponsor's mark EH, blue enamel Roman numerals around white face, minute track and subsidiary seconds dial, named 'RECORD' JAMES WALKER LONDON, Record 7 jewel lever movement, in excellent condition, on a 9 carat gold Albert chain, round, double curb, 4.9mm wide, hallmarked Birmingham 1929, each link stamped 9-375, with swivels and T-bar stamped 9-375 and maker'd mark W.J.S , fitted with curb framed swivel fob, rub over set cornelian and bloodstone 16.8mm diameter, 9 carat gold, hallmarked Chester 1926, maker's mark worn, gross weight of the chain 33.5 grammes £450 - £800 London Coins : Pocket Watch Half Hunter in a 9 carat gold case, 48.5mm diameter, London import mark 1928 with sponsor's mark EH, blue enamel Roman numerals around white face, minute track and subsidiary seconds dial, named 'RECORD' JAMES WALKER LONDON, Record 7 jewel lever movement, in excellent condition, on a 9 carat gold Albert chain, round, double curb, 4.9mm wide, hallmarked Birmingham 1929, each link stamped 9-375, with swivels and T-bar stamped 9-375 and maker'd mark W.J.S , fitted with curb framed swivel fob, rub over set cornelian and bloodstone 16.8mm diameter, 9 carat gold, hallmarked Chester 1926, maker's mark worn, gross weight of the chain 33.5 grammes Click to Enlarge
869 The Prince of Wales box containing seven pieces of Victorian Toy Money 1848, comprising Penny, Halfpennies (2), Farthing, Quarter Farthing, One Eight Farthing and One Sixteenth Farthing, EF to GEF, contained in a 16mm diameter box, with the Prince of Wales feathers on the lid £10 - £30 London Coins : The Prince of Wales box containing seven pieces of Victorian Toy Money 1848, comprising Penny, Halfpennies (2), Farthing, Quarter Farthing, One Eight Farthing and One Sixteenth Farthing, EF to GEF, contained in a 16mm diameter box, with the Prince of Wales feathers on the lid Click to Enlarge London Coins : The Prince of Wales box containing seven pieces of Victorian Toy Money 1848, comprising Penny, Halfpennies (2), Farthing, Quarter Farthing, One Eight Farthing and One Sixteenth Farthing, EF to GEF, contained in a 16mm diameter box, with the Prince of Wales feathers on the lid Click to Enlarge
870 Wrist watches and pocket watches (34) some of the wrist watches without straps, in mixed condition, working order uncertain £0 - £10

Please browse our catalogue using the navigation tools above.